From Wikivahdat
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Palestine is an Arab-Islamic country, the origin of monotheistic religions and the source of great civilizations. This country is a small land located in the Middle East, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan, and like a bridge, connects the three continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Palestine is known as the heart of the Arab world and also the link between the east and the west. For this reason, this land has a strategic position in the Middle East and among the Arab-Islamic countries. Palestine, in another sense, is larger than the present-day country of Palestine and includes parts of Lebanon and Syria.

The History of Human Presence in Palestine

According to historical documents, the first signs of life of primitive humans, dating back to twelve thousand years before Christ, have been seen in Palestine. For example, cities such as Gaza, Jericho, and Magdala are among the oldest cities in the world. Of course, the favorable geographical situation has not been ineffective in this matter, and based on this, agriculture and business have flourished in this land thousands of years before the birth of Christ.

The History of Palestine

Palestine has an ancient history that dates back to the presence of humans on the earth. This country is the cradle of the great divine religions and the home of the famous civilizations of the world. Throughout history, different peoples with various religions such as Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in this region, but the root of the monotheistic religions should be sought in the arrival of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) to this country. Al-Aqsa Mosque, the first Qibla of Muslims, is located in this country.

The people of Palestine

The people who live in Palestine today are the descendants of the people who have always lived in this land. They are mostly related to the Arab race in terms of culture and language. Genetic studies have shown that the majority of Muslims who live in this land, as well as the Arab citizens of Israel, are the children of Jews, Christians, and other inhabitants of the southern regions of Syria, whose presence dates back to prehistoric times. A large part of the population of Palestine converted to Islam after the victories of Muslims in the seventh century, and of course, many also remained Christian, such as the Druze and the Samaritans.

The capital of Palestine

The capital of this country is Jerusalem, which is of special importance for the religions of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.

The Provinces of Palestine

The provinces of Palestine are located in two regions: the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The provinces that belong to the West Bank are Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Nablus, Qalqilya, Salfit, Ramallah, Al-Bireh, Jericho, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Hebron. The provinces that belong to the Gaza Strip are North Gaza, Gaza, Deir al-Balah, Khan Yunis, and Rafah.

The Important Cities of Palestine

The important cities of Palestine are Gaza, Bethlehem, Hebron, Haifa, Acre, and Ashkelon.

The Language of the People of Palestine

The people of Palestine, whether Muslim or Christian, speak Arabic with a Palestinian dialect, and some of the Arab people know Hebrew as a second language and speak it easily.

The Advent of Islam in Palestine

In the era of Islam and during the second caliph, the people of this land embraced Islam and then came under the rule of the Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, and Ottoman governments. The Crusaders, after defeating the Muslims in war, ruled Palestine for a while and then the Muslims regained their land. In 1917, Britain occupied Palestine and this paved the way for the occupation of this country by Israel in 1948. This occupation continues to this day.

Population, Race, and Ethnicity of the People of Palestine

The population of Palestine until 200 AD was about eight million people, mostly consisting of Muslim Palestinians. The race of these people is Semitic and their language is Arabic.

The status of Palestine in the Islamic World

This country is of great interest in the Islamic world for various reasons. The existence of Al-Aqsa Mosque in Palestine as the first Qibla of Muslims and the ascension of the Prophet, has distinguished the status of this country. Palestine is mentioned in the Quran by titles such as the Holy Land and the Blessed Land. In addition, Palestine is the birthplace and burial place of many prophets.

The Shiites of Palestine

After the advent of Islam in Palestine, Shiites settled in this country. But, they do not have a significant population. The most important groups affiliated with Shiism include the Supreme Shiite Council of Palestine, the Shuqai Association, and the Saberin Movement.

The Islamic Movement of Palestine

Palestine, which is the meeting place of three great heavenly religions (Islam, Christianity, and Judaism), has a history full of events and sorrow. This country was administered as a colony of Western Rome in 395 AD and from the middle of the seventh century AD to the sixteenth century, Arab Muslims ruled over it. The land of Palestine was a part of the Ottoman Empire's territories from 1517 to 1917 AD.

The first Zionist Congress for achieving the Promised Land was held in 1897 in the city of "Basel" in Switzerland under the leadership of "Herzl" and declared that:

"The aim of Zionism is to establish a national home for the Jewish people in the land of Palestine."

Following this action by the Zionist Congress, Britain presented a famous plan called the Balfour Declaration in November 1917, based on the formation of an independent state for the Jewish people in Palestine and the migration of Jews from all over the world to this land.

This decision, the first colonialist European one that coincided with World War I and the Ottoman Empire was also breathing its last breath due to internal problems and conflicts, was easily implemented. Before the end of World War I, the lands of the Ottoman Empire were divided according to the "Sykes-Picot" agreement between England and France.

The disintegration of the Ottoman territory paved the way for the realization of the Balfour Declaration and the treacherous plan of Britain and European countries, and the Jews received the reward of establishing an independent country from England. In order to implement this plan, Britain, with the help of "Sherif Hussein", the ruler of Hejaz at the time, succeeded in expelling the Ottomans from Palestine and thus opened the gates of Palestine to Jews from other countries.

The beginning of the migration of Jews to Palestine caused unrest in this country and the Arab Muslims declared their opposition to the migration of Jews and the Balfour Declaration with the uprisings of April 1920, May 1921, and August 1929. Although these uprisings could not stop the migration of Jews to Palestine, but they paved the way for the next uprisings that began more extensively between 1936 and 1939. The leadership of the Palestinian people's movement in this period was in the hands of "Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam".

In November 1947, the United Nations, with the aim of suppressing the Islamic movement of Palestine and under the influence of Zionist ideas, issued its resolution number 181 based on the division of the land of Palestine into two Jewish and Arab countries. The issuance of this resolution caused the "World Zionist Council" to declare the existence of the first state of "Israel" in Palestine. Simultaneously with the establishment of the state of Israel, Britain also announced the end of its trusteeship over this country on May 15, 1948.

The Type of Government in Palestine

Today, an organization called the Palestinian Authority is in charge of affairs in Palestine. The history of the Palestinian Authority dates back to 1939. At that time, an agreement called the Israeli Declaration of Principles was signed and continued with many clauses between Mahmoud Abbas, representing Yasser Arafat, the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization and Fatah party, and Shimon Peres, the Israeli prime minister, representing Yitzhak Rabin, the Israeli president. The result of this agreement was that Israel would withdraw from areas such as Gaza and Jericho for five years and hand over the administration of these areas to the Palestinian Authority. However, in late 1995, Israel returned to the areas under its control and only handed over 27 percent of the agreed land to the Palestinian Authority, which gradually changed the situation. At that time, Yasser Arafat was able to obtain the veto right in the Palestinian Council. Then, following the protests in the Palestinian Council in 2003, Arafat used the veto right to establish the position of prime minister and Mahmoud Abbas, a member of the Fatah party, served as the prime minister of Palestine. But, due to the lack of strong supports, Mahmoud Abbas was forced to resign soon. After the death of Yasser Arafat in 2004, new elections were held in 2005. This time 62 percent of the Palestinian people voted for Mahmoud Abbas. Also in January 2005, the elections related to the Palestinian Legislative Council were held, in which Hamas organization won 44.45 percent of the majority of votes and Ismail Haniyeh was elected as the prime minister of the Palestinian Authority. Hamas organization, which was called a terrorist group, was sanctioned by the United States, Israel, and many European countries. For this reason, in December 2006, Ismail Haniyeh announced that his government would never recognize Israel. On June 14, 2007, the Fatah and Hamas movements clashed and at this time Mahmoud Abbas announced the dissolution of the Haniyeh government and appointed a person named Salam Fayyad in his place. Some Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Egypt, considered the Fayyad government, which was based in Jericho, as the only legal government of Palestine and even Egypt moved its embassy from Gaza to Jericho.

Islamic Currents in Palestine

Palestine, like many countries, has different political currents and parties with religious origins. Parties such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Muslim Brotherhood, and Fatah are among the most famous of them.