From Wikivahdat
nameIslamic Resistance Movement
Date of establishment1987 AD
  • Sheikh Ahmad Yassin
  • Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi
  • Mahmoud al-Zahar
LeadersIsmail Haniyeh

Hamas was founded in 1987 by Sheikh Ahmad Yassin, Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi and Mohammad Taha during the first intifada as the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Hamas has carried out numerous suicide bombings, rocket attacks and military assaults against Israeli soldiers. They have not limited their activities to military operations and have implemented various social programs that have a strong presence in the lives of the people of Gaza Strip and the West Bank.


Hamas is an acronym for "Islamic Resistance Movement". It is a popular-nationalist movement that strives to create the conditions for the freedom and liberation of the Palestinian people from oppression and injustice, as well as, liberating this occupied land and confronting the Zionist schemes supported by the arrogant powers. Hamas is a jihadist movement in the broad sense of the word and part of the process of the Islamic awakening that believes that this awakening is the best way to liberate Palestine from the river to the sea. Hamas is a widespread popular movement that has its roots in the masses of the Palestinian people and the Islamic Ummah.

Hamas considers Islamic beliefs and principles as the fixed basis for any effort against the enemy; an enemy that is the flag-bearer of enmity with all the movements and plans of awakening based on its ideological foundation. Hamas movement welcomes those who believe in the principles of the movement and are ready to accept the consequences of the conflict and confrontation with the Zionist scheme.

The Movement's Emblem

The movement's emblem consists of a picture of the Dome of the Rock in the center with a small map of Palestine above it and the crescent-shaped flags of Palestine that embrace the dome as if they are hugging it. On the flag on the right, the phrase "There is no god but Allah" and on the flag on the left, the phrase "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" are written. In the lower part of the dome, there is a picture of two crossed swords that form the lower frame of the dome. The word Palestine is engraved in the lower part of the intersection of the two swords and the phrase Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) is written in the lower part of the emblem on a ribbon.

It is obvious that the picture of the mosque and the phrase "There is no god but Allah" and "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" are symbols of the Islamic nature of the Palestinian issue and show its deep faith. While the map itself indicates the principled and firm position of the movement of Hamas towards the existing conflict with the Zionists and that the ultimate goal of this conflict is the liberation of the whole of Palestine with the borders specified in the mandate from the filth of the occupiers. Also, it expresses the movement's opposition to limiting the ideal of Palestine to the territories occupied in 1948. Moreover, The two swords, as always, are a sign of power and purity in the Arab thought. The movement of Hamas, which is involved in a struggle with the occupying regime, that does not adhere to any human value, directs its power and strength towards its real enemy without any deviation or flexibility.

Historical Background of Hamas

This movement was initially a follower of the Muslim Brotherhood model, meaning that it acted as a "social welfare institution", although it still continues its social and welfare activities, but by entering the armed phase, it focused more on its activities in the field of fighting Israel. Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) was founded in 1987 by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. Hamas's ideology is rooted in the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. In 1973, Yassin first established "the Islamic Group" to cooperate with the political activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gaza.

Then, he founded the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) as the political and regional arm of the Muslim Brotherhood in December 1987 following the start of the first intifada in the occupied territories. Hamas is mainly known for carrying out suicide attacks against Israeli targets and forces. This movement was initially a follower of the Muslim Brotherhood model, meaning that it acted as a "social welfare institution", although it still continues its social and welfare activities, but by entering the armed phase, it focused more on its activities in the field of fighting Israel.

Hamas considers the Arab-Israeli conflict as a conflict between Islam and Judaism that can only be resolved by the destruction of Israel.

Attitudes, Beliefs and Charter of Hamas

Some believe that Hamas's two views of "Palestinian nationalism" and "Islamic fundamentalism" are intertwined. This group is committed to "the destruction of Israel", "the Zionist identity" and "the replacement of the self-governing government of Palestine with an Islamic state" and "raising the flag of Allah in every part of Palestine". This movement considers Palestine as an Islamic land that has been occupied by non-Muslims.

Hamas considers "jihad" as the only solution to the Palestinian issue. It also regards the liberation of Palestine from Israeli control as a religious duty for all Muslims. Hamas, unlike the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) that recognized Israel in 1988, not only opposes the legitimacy of this regime but also calls for its destruction and opposes the existential nature of Israel. Hamas believes in establishing an Islamic state and implementing all aspects of Islam in all aspects of life. Hamas considers resistance as a duty for every Muslim and believes in the revolutionary roles for all members of society, including men, women, teachers, students, and others.

Hamas's Welfare Activities and Actions

One of the reasons for Hamas's popularity and good reputation in Palestine is the welfare and social services that it provides. Hamas has carried out extensive social, political and even military actions since its establishment in 1987. Among them, the construction of schools and hospitals can be mentioned. Part of Hamas's annual budget of about 70 million dollars is spent on the following actions:

  • Expanding the network of social services
  • Implementing educational and welfare programs
  • Providing schools, orphanages, mosques, health clinics, sports facilities, and Places to feed the poor.
  • As a Jewish scholar named "Reuven Paz" believes: "About 90 percent of the resistance movement's work is summarized in social, welfare, cultural and educational activities."
  • In fact, by providing these actions and activities, Hamas has succeeded in gaining popularity among the people and gaining their political loyalty.
  • This movement also provides financial aid and scholarships to students who want to continue their education in Saudi Arabia or the West.

In addition, Hamas offers cheap or free health and medical services to the people. This group also builds Islamic charities, libraries and educational centers for women. It has also been able to build kindergartens and nurseries and establish religious schools that provide free food to children.

The Attitude of Hamas Leaders towards Israel

Some of the leaders and heads of Hamas want the "eradication and destruction of Israel". After Hamas' victory in the January 25, 2006 elections, in an interview with Al-Manar TV, one of Hamas' leaders named Mahmoud al-Zahar rejected foreign demands to recognize Israel's right to exist . After the formation of the government by Hamas, Dr. al-Zahar said: "I wish to hang a map of the world on the wall of my house that does not have a name of Israel... I hope that our wish to form an independent Palestinian state that includes all the historical borders of Palestine will come true. I believe that one day the state of Palestine will be formed and there will be no place for the state of Israel in this land."

He clarified his view, which is a continuation of Hamas' strategy of not recognizing Israel, and said "by forming an Islamic state of Palestine, it is possible that all Jews, Christians and Muslims live together under the banner of an Islamic state." Al-Zahar continued, "Palestinians have no hatred of Jews and we only oppose the occupation of our land by Israel."

Sheikh Ahmad Yassin, before being assassinated by Israel's death squads, said in a speech that the year 2027 would be the year of Israel's destruction. Even Abdulaziz al-Rantisi went further and said: "We want to wipe Israel off the map". Al-Rantisi also added: "The Holocaust is a Nazi-Zionist issue with the aim of encouraging Jews to migrate to Israel". Khaled Mashal, the head of Hamas' political bureau, also said: "Hamas will only abandon its armed conflict with Israel when this regime returns to its 1967 borders,b withdraws from the Palestinian lands, and accepts the "right of return of the Palestinians".

Hamas' Charter

The 36-article charter of Hamas was adopted in 1988. Its goal is "to raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine" and to establish an Islamic state. In this charter, the slogan of Hamas is stated as follows: "Allah is our goal, the Prophet is our model and the Quran is our law; jihad is our way and death in the way of Allah is our highest wish." Also in this charter, the aim of Hamas is "to support the oppressed, to implement justice and to fight injustice."

Hamas believes that Palestine is a land that has been endowed for the future generations of Muslims until the Day of Judgment. The Islamic Resistance Movement is a distinct Palestinian movement that is loyal only to "Allah" and its way of life is also based on Islam. We strive to raise the banner of Allah over all of Palestine so that the followers of all religions can live peacefully and securely under the Islamic government. The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the land of Palestine is an Islamic endowment that has been entrusted to the future generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection. No part of it is possible to be given to anyone else.

The Main Leaders of Hamas

Hamas has two political and military wings.But apparently the distinction between them is not easy. Assessing the leadership structure of Hamas is somewhat difficult, but its leaders can be mentioned as follows:

Khaled Mashal

He was born in 1956, in the West Bank. He graduated from Kuwait University with a degree in physics. He was the leader of the Islamic Movement of Palestinian Graduates in Kuwait. Khaled Mashal can be called the leader of Hamas. He lives in Damascus, where he has been in exile since the 1990s.

Ismail Haniyeh

He is in his 40s and is a graduate of the Islamic University of Gaza in Arabic literature. Ismail Haniyeh is one of those who were exiled to Lebanon along with several other famous figures in the early 1990s. He has a balanced and calm approach, but some believe that this is nothing but a tactic.

Mousa Abu Marzook

He was born in 1951 in Gaza and received his PhD in industrial engineering from a university in the United States. He is the deputy leader of the political wing of Hamas and lives in Syria. He lived for years in America and Jordan and was finally tried in absentia and expelled by a court in the United States in 2004. The court claimed that he financially supported Hamas' activities.

Mahmoud al-Zahar

He was born in Gaza and studied medicine in Cairo. He is one of the founders of Hamas. Mahmoud al-Zahar is the leader of the Hamas faction in the parliament.

Aziz Dweik

He was born in 1948 and received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania. Aziz Dweik was exiled to Lebanon in 1992 and became the spokesman for the deportees of Lebanon.

Sheikh Hassan Yousef

He is in his 50s and has been the head of Hamas in the West Bank since 2001. Now, he is in an Israeli prison. Some believe that if Sheikh Hassan Yousef is released, moderation will enter the Hamas system.

The Meeting of the Head of the Political Bureau of Hamas with the Leader of the Revolution

Mr. Ismail Haniyeh, the head of the political bureau of Hamas and his accompanying delegation met with Ayatollah Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution.

In this meeting, the head of the political bureau of Hamas reported on the latest developments of Gaza and the West Bank and the crimes of the Zionist regime in Gaza.

The Leader of the Islamic Revolution also reiterated his appreciation for the patience and steadfastness of the people of Gaza and expressed his profound sadness at the crimes of the Zionist regime, that are carried out with the direct support of the United States and some Western countries. He emphasized the permanent policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in supporting the Palestinian resistance forces against the Zionist occupiers.

Ayatollah Khamenei also stressed the need for serious mobilization of the Islamic countries and the international community. Also, he called for the comprehensive and practical support of the Islamic governments for the people of Gaza.